Kohli, the Indian vice captain, entered the series as the third-ranked batsman. He moved up one position following his Player of the Series performance in which he scored 296 runs.
The former India Under-19 captai also achieved a career-best rating of 866 after the fourth One-day International (ODI) in which he scored 128 not out in India's six-wicket victory.
Kohli now trails South Africa's Hashmi Amla by 13 ratings points and can potentially top the batting chart if the South Africa opener fails to perform in the five-ODI series against England starting August Aug 24 in Cardiff.
Kohli's team-mate and opener Gautam Gambhir has also broken into the top 10 which means India now have three batsmen inside the top 10 with skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni sitting in fifth position. Gambhir scored 258 runs in the series and has been rewarded with a jump of seven places which has put him in 10th position.
Other India batsmen to move up the order include Virender Sehwag in 26th (up by one) and Suresh Raina in 30th (up by two), while Rohit Sharma has slipped eight places to 54th.
For Sri Lanka, Upul Tharanga in 40th (up by four) and Lahiru Thirimanne in 86th (up by seven) are the only batsmen to move up the ladder.
Tillakaratne Dilshan in 15th (down by six), Mahela Jayawardena in 22nd (down by three), Dinesh Chandimal in 32nd (down by 10) and Angelo Mathews in 39th (down by three) are some of the Sri Lanka batsmen to drop down in the standings.
India's 4-1 victory have seen them move up to second place in the team rankings.